Aird, Enola. 2013. “The Three-Parent Dilemma.” Retrieved April 25, 2014 (

American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility. Retrieved from

Andrews, L. B. (1992). Torts and the double helix: malpractice liability for failure to warn of genetic risks. Houston Law Review / University of Houston, 29(1), 149–84. Retrieved from

Bredenoord, A. L. et al. 2011. “Ethics of modifying the mitochondrial genome.” Journal of Medical Ethics 37(2):97-100. (

Chinnery, Patrick F. et al. 2014. “The Challenges of Mitochondrial Replacement” edited by David R. Thorburn. PLoS Genetics 10(4):e1004315. Retrieved April 25, 2014 (

Cooper G.M. (2000). The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates. Mitochondria. Available from:

Craven, Lyndsey et al. (2010). “Pronuclear Transfer in Human Embryos to Prevent Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA Disease.” Nature 465(7294):82–85. Retrieved March 20, 2014 (

Cussins, J. (2013). A Former IVF Baby on “Three-Parent IVF”. In Huffington Post
Science: The Blog. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from

Cussins, J. (2014). “What we Know About Three-Parent In Vitro Fertilization”. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from the Center for Genetics and Society. (

Cussins, J., & Shanks, P. (2013). Broad Public Support for “3-Parent Babies” and
Crossing the Human Germline? Not What the Data Say. In Biopolitical Times. Retrieved
April 24, 2014, from

“DES History.” (n.d.). . Retrieved May 11, 2014, from

DiMauro, S. & Davidson, V. (2005). Mitochondrial DNA and disease. Annals of Medicine: 37: 222-232. Retrieved from

Food and Drug Administration (2014). Oocyte Modification in Assisted Reproduction for the Prevention of Transmission of Mitochondrial Disease or Treatment of Infertility. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from

Frith, L. “Gamete donation and anonymity: The ethical and legal debate.” Oxford Journals,16, 818-824. Retrieved May 19, 2014, from

Giusti, R., Iwamoto, K., & Hatch, E. “Diethylstilbestrol Revisited: A Review of the Long-Term Health Effects.” Ann Intern Med, 10, 778-788. Retrieved May 9, 2014, from

Harris, J. ( 2012). “Misleading Talk of ‘Three-Parent Babies’ Helps No One | John Harris | Comment Is Free | The Guardian.” The guardian. Retrieved May 2, 2014 (

Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. 2013. Mitochondria Replacement Consultation: Advice to Government. Retrieved April 25, 2014 (

Joseph, B., Corwin, J., Li, B., Atwell, S., & Kliebenstein, D. (2013, October 8). Cytoplasmic
genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome. eLife. doi:

Koopman, Werner, Peter Willems, and Jan Smeitink. 2012. “Monogenic Mitochondrial Disorders.”
The New England Journal of Medicine (366):1132–41. Retrieved (

Lombardo, P. “Eugenic Sterilization Laws”. Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement. Retrieved from

McKie, Robert. 2014. “Families Hope ‘Frankenstein Science’ Lobby Will Not Stop Gene Cure for Mitochondrial Disease | Science | The Observer.” The guardian. Retrieved May 2, 2014 (

Murray, Thomas H. 2014. “Genetics. Stirring the Simmering ‘Designer Baby’ Pot.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343(6176):1208–10. Retrieved May 18, 2014 (

Narayan, C. (2014, January 24). “Kansas court says sperm donor must pay child support.” CNN Justice. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from

Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Background: Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). Retrieved from

Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Background: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT). Retrieved from

Pacholczyk, Tadeusz. 2009. “The Ethics of ‘Correcting’ Mitochondrial Disease”. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from the National Catholic Bioethics Center. (

Poulton, Joanna & Oakeshott, P. 2012. “Nuclear transfer to prevent maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA disease.” BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 345 (oct03_1) p. e6651.

Reinhardt, Klaus, Damian K. Dowling, and Edward H. Morrow. 2013. “Medicine. Mitochondrial
Replacement, Evolution, and the Clinic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341(6152):1345–46. Retrieved (

Sample, Ian. 2013. “Three-Person IVF: UK Government Backs Mitochondrial Transfer | Science | The Guardian.” The guardian. Retrieved May 2, 2014 (

Singer, B. (n.d.). “Sperm Donor Legalities: Using (or becoming) a Known Donor vs an Anonymous Donor.” Retrieved May 13, 2014, from

Stein, J. (2012, December 10). “I Donated My Eggs For The Money — And I Don’t Regret It.” The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 14, 2014, from

Tachibana, Masahito et al. 2009. “Mitochondrial Gene Replacement in Primate Offspring and Embryonic Stem Cells.” Nature 461(7262):367–72. Retrieved March 24, 2014 (

Tachibana, Masahito et al. 2013. “Towards Germline Gene Therapy of Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases.” Nature 493(7434):627–31. Retrieved March 20, 2014 (

Taylor, Robert W., and Doug M. Turnbull. 2007. “Europe PMC Funders Group MITOCHONDRIAL DNA MUTATIONS IN HUMAN DISEASE.” Nature Reviews Genetics 6(5):389–402. Retrieved (

Toynbee, P. (2014, February 10). This treatment would save children’s lives – so why won’t the
government allow it?. In The Guardian. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation. Understanding Mitochondrial Disease.Retrieved from

United Kingdom Department of Health. 2014. “Serious Mitochondrial Disease: New Techniques to Prevent Transmission – Consultations – GOV.UK.” Retrieved May 2, 2014 (

United Kingdom Department of Health. 2013. “Innovative Genetic Treatment to Prevent Mitochondrial Disease – Press Releases – GOV.UK.” Retrieved May 2, 2014 (



Vote now!

Ready to vote now?


House by Richard Schumann from The Noun Project

Form by Steve Morris from The Noun Project

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s